Day 2 :
Institute for Molecular Science, Japan
Time : 09:00-09:30
Masahiro Hiramoto received a PhD in Chemistry from Osaka University, Japan in 1986. He started his research on organic semiconductors and organic solar cells in 1988 at the Graduate School of Engineering from the same university. He joined the Institute for Molecular Science, Japan as a Professor in 2008. He has published over 130 papers. He is an Inventor of the blended junction and tandem junction for organic solar cells.
Controlling "holes" and "electrons" responsible for electric conduction of p-type and n-type semiconductors by doping had been the central technology inorganic single crystal electronics represented by silicon chips and solar cells. We have reported the effects of impurity doping at ppm level in photovoltaic organic semiconductors. The number of carriers created by doping and their mobility can be freely evaluated by "Hall effect measurement" using a magnetic field. However, in the field of organic electronics, no one has ever attempted to dope impurities into an organic single crystal itself nor measure its Hall effect. Recently, we have combined the rubrene organic single crystal growth technique with our original ultra-slow deposition technique of 10-9 nm/s, which includes a rotating shutter having aperture and for the first time, we have succeeded in producing the ppm-level doped organic single crystal and have detected its Hall effect signal. The present results have the meaning of dawn of organic single crystal electronics similar to the silicon single crystal electronics.
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Keynote: Innovative Functional Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) Inorganic Nanotubes (f-INTs-WS2) - Novel Non-Toxic Nanoscale Inorganic Polymer-Composite Inorganic “Nanofillers”
Time : 09:30-10:00
Jean-Paul Lellouche leads a laboratory dedicated to Nano-biotechnology and Polymer Science. His current R&D activities include “R&D developments in the materials science field interfacing with nano-biotechnology, i.e., conducting functional polymers; chemically modified hard nanoscale fillers; UV-photo-reactive nano(micro)particles [surface nano(micro)structuration of polymeric coatings, hybrid metallic catalytic particles]; antibacterial organic/inorganic NPs and coatings and; innovative surface modifications of iron oxide (magnetite/maghemite) NPs towards gene silencing (siRNA/microRNA in vitro/in vivo delivery) and anti-parasitic bio-activity”. Recently, he deeply focused on and elaborated various innovative organic chemistry-based methodologies for the development of effective covalent versatile interfacial chemistries towards chemically tailored non-toxic mechanically hard functional inorganic: Tungsten disulfide nanotubes and; tribology-effective fullerene-like tungsten disulfide nanoparticles.
Statement of the problem: Tungsten disulfide nanotubes (INTs-WS2) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (IFs-WS2) are extremely hydrophobic and chemically inert inorganic nanomaterials, which quite strongly limits their usefulness in numerous mechanical hardness and tribology-relating research developments and subsequent industrial end-applications. Thus, the covalent attachment of any kind of functional organic and/or biology-relating species remains a quite critical developmental step towards highly innovative high-performance nanomaterials and multiphase composites in the field of essential interfacial versatile chemistries.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In this context of highly challenging functionalization issue of these chemically inert hydrophobic nanomaterials, an innovative method of surface functionalization (versatile polycarboxylate – polyCOOH shell formation) of multi-walled inorganic nanotubes (INTs-WS2) and fullerene-like (IFs-WS2) nanoparticles has been successfully developed. This covalent functionalization method makes use of highly electrophilic and reactive iminium salts (Vilsmeier-Haack (VH) complexes) to enable the introduction of a chemically versatile polyacidic (polyCOOH) shell onto the surface of VH-treated inorganic nanomaterials. Moreover, a significant statistical design of experiments (DoE) method has been also involved for global optimization of this multi-parametric polycarboxylation shell generation.
Findings: This INTs-nanotube sidewall polyCOOH-enabling functionalization showed extreme COOH-based chemical versatility for innovative-targeted interfacial chemistries. It enabled the effective fabrication of a wide range of covalent WS2-INTs surface modifications (polyNH2, polyOH, polySH) via (i) polyCOOH chemical activation (EDC, CDI) and (ii) 2nd step covalent nucleophilic substitutions by short w-aminated ligands H2N-linker-X (X outer surface functionality).
Conclusion & Significance: Resulting fully characterized functional INTs-WS2 (f-INTs-WS2) have a quite wide potential for use as novel functional nanoscale fillers towards new mechanically strengthened and/or conductive composite polymeric matrices (case of hybrid polythiophene-decorated f-INTs-WS2 nanocomposites, Figure 1). Corresponding novel functional nanomaterials/nanoscale fillers have been also shown to be non-toxic in preliminary toxicity studies, which opens a wide R&D route/progress for relating end-user applications (cellular toxic CNTs nanofillers replacement for example).
Evry Paris Saclay University, France
Keynote: History of nanosciences
Time : 10:00-10:30
Born in 1957 (61 years old) Professor Philippe Houdy is a French nano-physicist. He gets is PhD in material sciences in 1982. He starts nanosciences in Philips laboratory in Paris working on nano-optics and nano-magnetics as head of the Nano-material team. In 1992 he joins Evry University working at the material center of Ecole nationale des Mines de Paris studying nano-mechanics. In 2004 he starts a nano-sciences pedagogical project. He publishes four books in French and four books in English. He successively earns Roberval Price
(2008) and Roberval Trophy (2011). From 2011 to 2014 he is the President of Evry University. Since 2015, he studies History of Knowledges at IDHES Evry Laboratory.
Controlling "holes" and "eleAll along the centuries, scientists try to understand and to master the ultimate limit of the material : Democritus (-460, -370), father of modern science, predicts that “everything is composed of atoms”. John Dalton (1766, 1844) proposes the modern atomic theory (1808). Dmitri Mendeleev (1834, 1907) formulates the periodic law and creates the periodic table of elements (1869). Max von Laue (1879, 1960) first observes the diffraction of X-rays by crystals (1912, NP 1914). Ernst Ruska (1906, 1988) builds the first electron microscope (1931, NP 1986). Richard Feynman (1918, 1988) predicts that “There is plenty of room at the bottom” (1959, NB 1965). Norio Taniguchi (1912, 1999) grows ultra thin films and proposes the term of nano-technology (1974). Heinrich Rohrer (1933, 2013) and Gerd Binnig (1947) create the first nano-apparatus (scanning tunneling microscope: visualization of atoms 1981, manipulation of atoms 1989, NP 1986). Harold Kroto (1939, 2016), Richard Smalley (1943, 2005) and Robert Curl (1933) discover fullerenes (C60 buckyball, nanotube, graphene, 1985, NP 1996). Eric Drexler (1955) writes “The coming era of nanotechnology” (1986). Finally, Peter Grunberg (1939) and Albert Fert (1938) discover the giant magnetoresitant effect and create spintronic (1988, NB 2007) and André Geim (1958) and Konstantin Novaselov (1974) study graphene properties (2004, NB 2010). We will describe the breakthroughs in nanophysics, nanochemistry, nanobiology all along the last thirty years opening new horizons in research and industry and try to evaluate nanotoxicology risks and nanoethics answers.
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Time : 10:45-11:15
Gilbert Daniel Nessim heads a laboratory at Bar Ilan University (Israel) that focuses on the synthesis of nanostructures using state-of-the-art chemical vapor deposition equipment. The scientific focus is to better understand the complex growth mechanisms of these nanostructures, to possibly functionalize them to tune their properties, and to integrate them into innovative devices. He joined the Faculty of Chemistry at Bar Ilan University in 2010 as a Lecturer and was promoted to a Senior Lecturer in 2014. He holds a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), an MBA from INSEAD (France), and Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Politecnico di Milano and from the Ecole Centrale Paris (ECP, within the Erasmus/TIME program.
Massive research has been done in the past decade on 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, with graphene (2D) winning the Nobel prize in 2010. The interest stems from their original morphologies and structures, which make them attractive for a wide array of applications, including energy, electronic devices, and composites. In our lab, we have focused on developing new processes for the synthesis of 1D and 2D nanomaterials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). 1D Despite the massive progress achieved in the growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests on substrate, apart from lithographic patterning of the catalyst, little has been done to selectively (locally) control CNT height. Varying process parameters, gases, catalysts, or underlayer materials uniformly affects CNT height over the whole substrate surface. We show here how we can locally control CNT height, from no CNTs to up to 4X the nominal CNT height from iron catalyst on alumina underlayer by patterning reservoirs or by using overlayers during annealing or growth. By using different thin film materials as reservoirs, we can locally grow taller CNTs1 (2X with Fe, 4X with Mo), shorter CNTs (with Cu), or completely inhibit CNT growth2 (with Cu/Ag alloy). Additionally, we show how copper3 or nickel4 overlayers (as stencils or bridges) placed above the catalyst surface during pre-annealing or during CNT growth deactivate the catalyst, thus growing patterns of CNT forests without the need for lithography. This modulation of the CNT height using reservoirs and/or overlayers is a significant improvement compared to the "CNTs (one height) / no CNTs" patterning that has been achieved using lithography of the catalyst, and moves us closer to building 3D architectures of CNTs. 2D Most of the recently discovered layered materials such as MoS2 or MoSe2 are n-type, while few materials, such as phosphorene, which suffers from rapid oxidation, are p-type. To form devices such as p−n junctions and heterojunctions, new p-type mono-/few-layers are needed. We developed a one-step synthesis of a 2D layered, crystalline, p-type
copper sulfide5 by thermal annealing of a standard copper foil in an inert environment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The material synthesized has one stoichiometry (Cu9S5) and exhibits good conductivity despite a bandgap of 2.5 eV. Combined with n-type layered materials, our p-type Cu9S5 opens the door to the fabrication of 2D p−n heterojunctions. We used a similar bottom-up synthesis to synthesize other metal sulfidesand phosphides.